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GNOSIS 2/2005
The criminal outline:
investigations and graphology

articolo redazionale

This article, intended to be of a divulging nature, proposes to offer an explanatory overall view on graphology with particular reference to the support that it can offer in the war on criminality. It does not aspire to cover all aspects of such a vast and complex discipline. We intend, at the most, to give a rough outline of the material, in order to fire the reader’s curiosity about a little known, but fascinating subject.
Some graphology samples of notorious criminals are given in the appendix.

a fascinating mystery

Considered, in the past, as something ‘mysterious’ and ‘indefinite’, it was even placed among the “prophesying arts”, today, graphology is recognized as a scientific (1) discipline and is defined as: “a method of scientific diagnosis through the knowledge of the personality of the writer, based on the individual’s handwriting (2) .
In the practical application, the graphologist notes the graphological signs which are present in a specimen of handwriting - each one of which corresponds to a determinate psychological significance - they are then examined in their reciprocal interaction and in their relation to the handwriting as a whole, and finally, the graphologist can describe the personality of the writer.
The result is a psychological picture of the individual, “painted” from different viewpoints -intellect, character, emotions - in such a way as to be able to understand, for example, the kind of intelligence, the personal aptitudes and capacity, the general behavioural tendencies (introvert/extrovert) and the attitudes adopted in social relations; the emotivity (3) .

The “graphic personality”
a mirror of the soul

In the act of writing, each one of us project ourselves onto a sheet of paper, even if it is only at the unconscious level, leaving an imprint of our personality, defined exactly, as our ‘graphic personality’ (4) .
In fact, it is considered that our handwriting holds important traces of both our ‘inate ’temperament and the effects of experience on the development of our personality (for example, infantile trauma, lack of affection and various personal experiences (5) .

History and background

The idea of a significant correlation between handwriting and the personality is very old. In fact, in all historical epochs and important civilizations – in the writings of philosophers and poets, religions, people of letters and doctors, attempts have been made to probe the depths and the enigma of the human character, trying to explore the interior life of the individual and understand behaviour through the study of handwriting.
Historically, the year 1830 marks the birth of graphology, in France, thanks to the works of Abbot Michon , (1806-1881) and afterwards perfected by his pupil, J. Crepieux-Jamin, (1858-1940), who elaborated a detailed and accurate classification of handwriting and its graphic signs, recalling the scientific spirit of positivist thinking of those times.
In Germany, the chemist L. Klages (1873-1956) introduced philosophical and metaphysical concepts into graphology.
The leader of Swiss graphology was M. Pulver (1889-1953) writer of the Jung School, who applied the criteria of the ‘global approach’ in the examination of handwriting and was the first to introduce psycho-analysis into graphology.
In Italy, apart from the pioneering attempts of C. Lombroso, much is owed to the work of Father G. Moretti (1879-1963), authentic leader of Italian - who gave an ideographic character to his work; that is, centred around the basic concept of the ‘unique and unrepeatable nature of the individual. He also elaborated a personal interpretation of graphic signs.
Over the years, through the work of various leaders in the field and their pupils, graphology is now diffused throughout the world and has attained the dignity of a science.

Graphology today

The figure of the graphologist , above all, in the Western world is fully recognized and can find ample occupation in sectors other than those purely connected with criminology.
For example, among the various fields of application, the graphologist is used by many companies for the hiring and promotion of personnel, since it permits an evaluation of the suitability of a candidate –not only from a character and intellectual viewpoint, but also, with regard to individual aspirations (6) . Within the framework of the company, the graphological evaluation is also very useful in the formation of a ‘team’, which is harmonious, collaborative and functional.
Graphology is also employed in the scholastic field, either in the orientation of pupils’ choices of objectives, thereby rendering their study courses more satisfying, or for a more immediate and better comprehension of adolescent problems, which if neglected, could become much more serious.
Another field of application is that of psycho-social-medical interests, in the cases relative to the recovery of people affected by addictions, either alcohol or drugs. In these cases, the patients’ handwriting, if opportunely monitored, can give important indications regarding personality, motivation for the addiction, affective clinical progress and the most affective ways in which patients can be reinstated into society. Furthermore, the application of graphology cannot be forgotten in the field of psychiatry where the relation between mental pathology and handwriting is studied. Finally, the examination of handwriting is very useful in gauging the compatibility of a couple.
Today, graphology is in continuing evolution and, as is shown in any self-respecting science, the content, language, techniques and methods in the various areas of specialization are being perfected more and more, every day.

aspects of graphology

In the perfect knowledge of its limitations, graphology – thanks to its intrinsic capacity to penetrate the depths of the human personality, wisely gathering the many facets, as well as, its notable versatility of application – is very easy to correlate with all those disciplines which concentrate their interests on man; e.g. psychology, criminology, psychoanalysis, sociology, anthropology, psychiatry and medicine (7) .
In this last regard, it is only right to remember- among many – some inter-disciplinary contributions of notable importance, such as that of A.Teillard (1889-1978), an Estonian graphologist and analyst of the Jung school, who studied with admirable results, the correlation between graphology and the psycho-analytical theories of Freud and Jung.In addition, there is the interesting research conducted by R. Weiser. a German graphologist-sociologist on the aspects of a criminal nature found in the handwriting of numerous adolescents involved in different types of crime.
However, with respect to the other disciplines involving the human being, there exists a privileged - by way of saying, a ‘princely’ relationship between graphology and psychology, (apart from the different schools and psychological methods).
And it could not be otherwise, considering that graphology is, in fact, a form of psychology applied to handwriting.
Furthermore, several studies have shown, also recently, the high rate of interaction and complementary aspects existent between handwriting analyses and certain psychological tests, such as; Rorschbach, Szondi,MMPI, TAT, Rosenzweig P-F Study. The result arising from these ‘cross-bred’ experiments, was precisely that of reaching a more complete and profound knowledge of the human personality (8) .
Therefore, this interdisciplinary aspect, on the one hand, testifies to the undeniable flexibility of the graphological instrument and, on the other, constitutes a strong point for graphology and a confirmation of its status as a science.

Graphology at the service
of security and truth

Criminality has always represented, even more so, today, a problem of primary importance and a source of notable anxiety for every type of society. It is known that in the contemporary world , the crime, considered generally, possesses infinite implications. It is destabilizing for the human society. It has a strong emotional impact on public opinion and incurs significant social costs for the entire community. Therefore, it is opportune to use every possible means to combat criminality, including graphology, which constitutes a potent instrument in its knowledge of the criminal - a princely asset for whatever kind of criminal phenomenon.

The graphologist :
investigator of the psyche

The graphologist is solidly present in every area of criminality and offers a valid ‘info-operative’ contribution to the investigators, through the study of the human psyche; either by analysing single psychological traits and the psychic functions (9) of the criminal subject, or by singling out behavioural tendencies. Furthermore, it needs to be underlined that the substantial effectiveness of the graphological instrument is also recognized in the particular malleability which characterizes it, rendering it adaptable in a multitude of circumstances.
In fact, its versatility permits it to:
- finalize the analysis of the psychological traits and behaviour which are of contingent and specific interest, rather than on the more general and manifest aspects of the personality;
- to examine handwriting which have been written at different times, to better understand ‘the traces left by experience’ on the personality of the individual;
- to operate with discretion, or rather, without the necessity of directly involving the person in question.
To illustrate the usefulness of the graphologist in an investigative capacity, a specific treatment of some of the principle techniques used today is suggested - techniques which are in continuous evolution and which permit the evaluation of:- the inclination to commit crimes; the compatibility between the suspect and the crime; whether the subject is of sound mind; the repetition of a crime; the dynamics of criminal groups; the reliability of state witnesses and their sources of information (10) .

The inclination to commit crimes
The thorough study of the structure of the personality, understood as the primary cause of human conduct, allows the graphologist to express an opinion regarding the tendency of the suspect to criminal behaviour (11) , defined as “ a tendency to be prejudiced against the interests of others or not to respect them to the advantage of one’s own –this, to a degree which is not tolerable to the cohabitation of man” (12) .
In practice, it deals with the ability to recognize these signs which, if they are present in extreme or pathological forms, they constitute 'graphological clues’ to the “criminal personality” and of the consequent inclination to criminal behaviour.
From this point of view, these ‘graphological clues’ assume a particular importance, i.e. indicating elements such as: aggressiveness/ impulsiveness, emotional instability (possible cause of interior vulnerability and insecurity), egocentricity/narcissism (the excessive need to satisfy one’s own ego, also at the expense of others), fanatical exaltation, ruthlessness/ coldness of sentiments, desire for vendetta/rancour, amorality and sexual perverseness.

Compatibility between suspect and crime
It is a type of graphological evaluation similar to that of the ‘inclination to criminal behaviour’, but less generic. In fact, the exam is specifically aimed towards understanding if the psychological outline of the suspect is compatible (and hopefully, to what extent) with that of the author of the crime.

To be of ‘sound mind’
The necessity to ascertain whether a person is ‘of sound mind’ or not, is of fundamental importance, as much for the criminal law as for procedural and investigative purposes. The graphological exam is useful in many ways in this area, both to establish the reliability of the witnesses to a crime and in the case of the person suspected of a crime.
The verification that a person is, indeed, of sound mind, is determined at the end of a more complete and correct evaluation of the chargeability and eventual determination of punishment for the subject under investigation. To such a purpose, where suitable specimens of handwriting are available, the comparative study of several done by the suspect before and after the criminal event, could be extremely useful.
The graphologist’s collaboration with specialists in the medical sector, i.e. psychiatrists, neurologists etc., creates a team of highly specialized competence with one single objective, or rather, to establish not only if the subject is ‘of sound mind’, but also if the condition is subject to variations ( alcoholic consumption, narcotics, medicines), or to mental pathologies of an episodic or permanent nature.
Furthermore, the same problem also concerns civil law, in its various areas. This is demonstrated very clearly in holograph testaments, donations, marriage contracts etc., For example, to establish if a marriage could be annulled on the grounds that documents could have been signed when a person was not ‘of sound mind.

Reiteration of the crime
The graphologist can also be called to express a considered opinion as to whether a person is likely to reiterate – or rather, commit the crime again. The graphologist’s opinion would be founded on the recognition of those psychological traits which – if being present in a frequent and intense manner – are indicative of a certain forma mentis, which renders the individual inclined to repeat the already committed crime or to commit others of a similar nature. Among the various elements considered necessary for this evaluation, are the following:
- a marked mental rigidity, promoting extreme stubbornness and a notable subjectivity in judgement
- conditions of strong psychic discomfort or of intellective/emotional deficits (13) .

Dynamics of a criminal group
In the investigative area of subversive phenomena, such as organized crime or terrorism, where the individual dimensions of the crime joins that of the ‘collective’, it is useful to try to delineate the role that each member has assumed in the group and the specific inter-personal dynamics that follow. To such a purpose, the graphological instrument – through personality analysis, is able to intervene in various ways:
- individual - attempting to understand, in a very general way, what role the suspect covers within the group, solely on the basis of his attitudes;
- collective – qualifying in a more specific manner the positions (for example, leader, rather than gregarious) and the functions (in general, theoretical/ organizer type, or practical/executive type ) which are eventually attributed to each member within the group.
Furthermore, the comparison between the handwriting of several individuals to allow the identification of the major and minor compatibilities of character, seen from the viewpoint of inter-personal affinities within the criminal group, with an end to better understand the dynamics of internal relations (14) .

The mind of a leader
( virtual profile of a terrorist group leader)
This individual possesses a good dose of astuteness and ferocity, a certain aridity of sentiments, an exceptionally high vital energy, great determination and tenacity, a cold lucidity in foreseeing or organizing events, he/she can assume the leader role within any terrorist group, either from a theoretic standpoint of ideology and strategic planning, or from an operative standpoint “wearing the dress of the ‘general’ who directs his troops ‘in the field’ and leads them into complex and bloody action”.

Reliability of state witnesses and their information sources
This exam can have very interesting investigative and info-operative applications (15) and allows the graphologist to express a highly qualified opinion on the reliability of state witnesses and informers.
This is done by evaluating the graphological signs which indicate ‘the inclination to deception’ that is, the tendency of the individual to:
- dissimulate, that is; to hide information without actually lying or giving false information;
- falsify, that is; to make false statements ‘passing them off as the truth’.

The calligraphic evaluation
on a graphological basis

In history, the need to ascertain the authenticity or falsification of handwriting has very ancient roots (16) . Over the years, such a need has created the profession of the ‘handwriting expert’, the first figure to be recognized as an expert in “handwriting” and - up to very recent times – the only person entitled to express an expert evaluation in such material (17) .
With regard to areas of verification, the calligraphist applies the so-called calligraphic method based on the examination of the morphologyof the letters, that is, the study of their form and dimension. Therefore, to express a judgement upon the authenticity of a piece of handwriting, he is limited to the exclusive study of the simple ‘exterior’ characteristics found in the handwriting under verification compared with those in the one under comparison.
However, during the course of time, the ‘drawbacks’ of such a method have become increasingly evident (18) , so opening the way, in this field, to a new and more complete professional figure: the calligraphic expert on a graphological basis (19) . In fact, such a figure adopts the graphological method and therefore, does not stop at the mere morphological observation of the single letters – as in the case of the calligrapher - but proceeds to an evaluation ‘in all fields’ of the handwriting specimen, thereby utilizing, to the full extent, the technical patrimony offered by graphology (20) .
The practical result is to identify, ‘without a shadow of doubt’, the compiler of the writing under verification – notwithstanding, the personal ability of the forger - gathering every single graphic element which characterizes unequivocally, the handwriting of a person (insomuch as, it is of that individual and no-one else).
The activity of the handwriting expert finds many fields of application, in particularly, in Court – both criminal and civil, as well as in the field of criminal investigation (21) . Furthermore, he/she can also operate within a ‘college of experts’ , that is, together with other professionals, when the evaluation to be accomplished, must satisfy other and, therefore, requires a more specialized knowledge – i.e. extra-graphological (22) .

Fields of application
for the graphology expert

The ways by which it is possible to forge writing can be reduced to two principal categories: imitation and dissimulation.
The imitation constitutes an attempt to reproduce the other writing in the most precise and accurate manner possible. It is an activity which requires exceptional ability – to be compared with great forgers of works of art – which permits the forger to ‘mould’ his own modus scrivendi to the specific model to be imitated.
Thedissimulation, on the other hand - to be exact, more easily practicable – represents nothing more than the act of ‘disguising’ one’s writing, in order that it shall not be recognized; this is done through alterations which deprive the writing of those peculiar characteristics which are identifiable with the author.
Therefore, to expose a counterfeit, the expert tries to identify in the incriminated writing, the points in which that spontaneous writing of the forger will reappear and betray him; this can happen either due to that ‘inevitable’ moment of inattention inherent in such a psycho-physical effort or for superficiality or an excess of presumption (23) .
In the face of such theoretical assumptions – rather simple in appearance – when it comes to practicalities, the graphology expert finds himself before an extremely difficult and complex case study, often characterized by a series of graphic and extra-graphic implications. In fact, before a valid judgement can be expressed, the expert must have specialized competence of a very high level, a certain instinct which will allow him to identify and follow the most probably indications for a correct analysis and, finally, to scrupulously inform himself of the determinant facts and situations which necessitate an expert opinion, (such as particular health conditions, or of not being ‘of sound mind’ or anything else which could be of interest to the case).
Having said this, the following are some among the most frequent cases in which the application of the graphology expert assumes a particular relevance:
- to contest a signature written on an instrument of credit, contract, guarantee et similia. It regards the classic situation in which a cheque is signed by a person different from the holder of the account, (for example, with the aim of perfecting a swindle or a deceit; or a promissory note is underwritten, dissimulating one’s own signature ( to later disown it , thus avoiding the obligation to pay);
- to contest a will - in relation to the fact that the declaration of authenticity or non-authenticity of the signature or the handwritten text, could be decisive in determining the validity of the Act;
- the investigations relative to a presumed case of suicide; to ascertain the authenticity of the writing with which the ‘victim’ writes the usual “message of goodbye” in an apparent suicide, could reveal, instead, a simulation to hide a murder;
- the investigations regarding anonymous handwritten communications. this type of missive can be reduced to 4 principal categories: defamatory, threatening, blackmailing, claiming (e.g. responsibility for something), the task of the expert is to try to identify the anonymous person through a comparison with the suspect’s handwriting.


In light of the growing interest, consent and curiosity which has manifest itself for a long time, in many different circles, this article on graphology has tried to underline the importance of the practical contribution that this discipline can offer in the fight against crime.
In fact, overcoming the prejudice often arising from a scarce knowledge of the material, this science demonstrates its value and current usefulness, more and more every day, due especially to the excellent results it obtains in many sectors.
Therefore, graphology – which could appear ‘obsolete’ , insofar as it recalls the ‘primitive’ concept of ‘manual’ work, right in the middle of the internet and high-tech age – confirms, on the contrary, its modernity, thanks to the scientific rigour and technical efficacy which characterizes the graphological method.
In conclusion, therefore, in view of what has been discussed in this article, it is most desirable that the discipline of graphology be utilized to the maximum, in all its applications, from the analysis of the personality to expert evaluations in its field.

Jack the ripper

The photograph of the handwriting is taken from a ‘Course in Medical Graphology’, held by Professor V. Tarantinoat the Medical Hospital School in Rome, in 2004.

Historical elements: among the many cases of serial killers, the story of Jack the Ripper is, perhaps, the one which has excited the most world interest. Behind this pseudonym, hides, in Victorian London of 1888, a cruel killer who cuts the throat, disembowels and massacres five prostitutes, without leaving a trace. His real identity is still unknown.
Psychological elements: the absence of human warmth, the marked aggressive tendency, the ferocity and unrestrained impulses fed by the search for sadistic pleasures. The killer satisfies his deviated, perverse and maniacal sexual instinct by committing violent and bloody murders.
Graphological elements: in general the graphic context is not homogeneous and is imbalanced, the writing pressure is not uniform and the ink is often blotted. There is a narrowness in the oval shapes and between the letters and words. The writing is angular and sharpened. The lower straight strokes are driven into the lines below.

Charles Manson

Photo of graphic taken from internet site cmanson2.htmlT.

Historical elements: Charles Manson, one of the most infamous murderers of recent history, was born in America in 1934, from an alcoholic prostitute and at the age of 30, already boasts a vast criminal ‘curriculum’. A convinced Satanist and a heavy consumer of hallucinogenic drugs, Manson founds and becomes the leader of the “Manson Family” commune, dedicated to robberies, burglaries and murders He is remembered, above all,for the massacre by knifing of nine people, in 1936, among whom was the actress Sharon Tate, wife of the film director, Roman Polanski. Manson is still in prison.
Psychological elements: a psychopath, subject to visionary madness and mental confusion. Violent and perverse, his emotional instability predisposes him to commit particularly cruel acts in a frenetic and uncontrollable manner. His charisma and determination permit him to influence, by praise and exaltation, the weakest and most malleable individuals. In the collective imagination, he has become the personification of evil.
Graphological elements: all the elements of the writing are disharmonious and confused, rendering the graphic context without homogeneity: disorder in the distribution of the graphic spaces, diminished looseness of movement in the writing gesture, alternation between width and narrowness in the oval letters, as well as between letters and words, dimension of the letters variable; on the whole, the writing is angular, the crossings of the ‘t’ are extended with force and the signature is partially obscured by a superfluous writing gesture.

Adolf Hitler

Photograph of the writing taken from : M.Moracchini, The Manual of Grapholoogy, Ed. Hobby & Work, Bresso (MI) 1996, 1996.

Historical elements: Hitler, certainly, has no need of an ‘introduction’. Among the marginal episodes of his life, some are particularly indicative of his ‘sick mind’. His conviction of being the reincarnation of Frederick II of Prussia is well known. And historians remember how the success of the allied Normandy landing could have been the consequence of the German generals’ extreme fear of contravening Hitler’s orders, due to his excessively violent reactions, (in fact, since the dictator had asked not to be woken up, the two armoured divisions based in Calais, remained inopportunely blocked).
Psychological elements: subject prone to hysteria with symptoms of obsessive neuroses. Easily irritable character, annoying and surly, often contradictory, perpetually falling prey to phases of intense excitement – which provoke a notable waste of energy – alternated with phases of discouragement and prostration. A violent, aggressive, choleric and vindictive nature in reaction to a strong inferiority complex and a profound sense of frustration. Remarkable intellective acumen, complete indifference towards extermination and devastation, disproportionate desire for conquest fed by mythomania, constant obsession of betrayal.
Graphological elements: writing rigid, angular and sharpened. Dimensions of the letters are so reduced, as to render them almost illegible. Narrowness of the oval shapes and between the letters and words; Rigid adherence to the ‘imaginary’ base line and a striking fall at the end of the lines.

Alì Agca

The photograph of the handwriting is taken from a ‘Course in Medical Graphology’, held by Professor V. Tarantinoat the Medical Hospital School in Rome, in 2004.

Historical elements: Rome, Piazza San Pietro, 13th May, 1981, the Turk, Mehmet Alì Agcà – militant of the terrorist organization of the extreme right, named ‘Grey Wolves’, led by Oral Celik – suddenly hit the world press for the attempted assassination of Pope Giovanni Paolo II. Behind the attempt is the shadow of the KGB and the Bulgarian Secret Service who, through their Turkish colleagues, hire the killer Agcà. Condemned to lifetime imprisonment, after serving 19 years, he is extradited to Turkey, following a pardon granted by President Ciampi in 2000. At the present time, Agca is detained in a Turkish prison to serve sentence for the murder of the journalist Abdu Ipekci, in 1979.
Psychological elements: amisfit and asocial who, behind the guise of a ‘strong’ person,hides a lack of confidence and a need to emulate models. His forma mentis is rigid and schematic, the coldness of sentiments and his remarkable emotional control, certainly render him a good executor, but not a leader. In fact, to be able to cover such a role, the elements of a certain charisma, a spirit of initiative and the capacity for long-term planning are needed – all of which Agca lacks.
Graphological elements: the writing, on the whole, is rigid, accurate and monotonous. very little space between the words. The component letters of the words are not joined, excessive irregularity of the right margin.

Tommaso Buscetta

The photograph of the handwriting is taken from a ‘Course in Medical Graphology’, held by Professor V. Tarantinoat the Medical Hospital School in Rome, in 2004.

Historical elements: Tommaso Buscetta, a personality of the Sicilian mafia hierarchy, also known as ‘Don Masino’, was the first ‘reformed’ mafia of history. His contribution to Justice, was repaid by the murder of his closest family members. He died in 2000, in New York, after collaborating for years, also with the United States Magistracy
Psychological elements: Buscetta had an authoritarian, obstinate, determined, strong-willed and inflexible character. On the whole, he possessed charisma and the fibre of a leader. In his personality of hysterical traits, there was an intense and often uncontrolled impulsiveness which, in cases of contradiction, could explode into unexpected and vulgar fits of rage. He was an individual of easy instincts of likes and dislikes, capable of strong love as well as strong hate. He could even respect an ‘enemy’ ,as was the case with regard to Judge Falcone.
Graphological elements: the strokes of the letters have an inclination to the right, revealing the presence of signs of deceit, alternated with disharmonious angular and curved forms, at times, drawn with difficulty; the dimensions of the letters are without homogeneity and the writing has an upward inclination, excessive volume in the oval forms and the ‘t’ crossings are hooked; sudden interruptions in joining the letters in a word and the letters are sometimes illegible, irregular distances between some of the letters and words; signature with a showy flourish underneath.

(1) In fact, it corresponds to the “Epistemological Postulates of the Human Sciences” by K. Popper: objectivity of the writing under examination (since the writing actually exists) Inter-subjectivity of the method (if it is correctly applied, it always results in the same conclusion, notwithstanding who applies the method) verifiability of the results obtained.
(2) Dictionary of Psychology – edition Paoline, Torino, 1986, page 475.
(3) To allow for optimal results of the graphological instrument, it is necessary that the specimen of writing is original, not too small, written spontaneously in cursive script and is accompanied by the signature and personal data of the writer. The present knowledge of graphology permits, only in a very approximate way, to know the age and sex of an anonymous writer. In the case that the writing does not comply with the above requisites, the graphological analysis will furnish only partial indications or, at best, they will be limited.
(4) Graphology is founded exactly upon this principal hinge, which over the years, experiments in the field have amply confirmed.
(5) Furthermore, handwriting is affected by states of mind, mood changes, age and health.
(6) In fact, from the viewpoint of ‘the right man for the right job’, the information furnished by the graphologist can be precious in maximizing staff performance.
(7) With regard to the interaction between graphology and medicine, it is interesting to cite the quarterly journal Medical Graphology – official body of the International Centre of Medical Graphology, directed by Prof. Vincenzo Tarantino and published in Italy and abroad since 1992.
(8) Regarding this, see: Anna Maria Pietropaoli, “The Roschbach Test & Graphology in the Analysis of a Case” in Grafologia Medica No. 2/96, pages 14-21, Cigme Edition, Rome, June, 1996.
(9) Reference is made to the psychic functions – perception, attention, memory, conception, effectiveness, will and conscience – cited in the Manual for Operators in Forensic Criminology and Psychopathology by Vincenzo Mastronardi, edition Giuffrè, Milan, 2001.
(10) The whole of these investigative techniques, allows one to put onto a practical plain, the entire theory ofgraphological criminology.
(11) The same analytical methodology can also be utilized in the case of threatening anonymous documents, to evaluate the effective social danger of the writer.
(12) R. Trevisano, Roda Wieser: The “Grundrhythmus” and the inclination to criminality shown in handwriting, in Graphological Criminology – Acts of the 2nd National Conference- Superior School of Evaluation Experts, 1998, page175.
(13) In cases where you meet graphological signs of particular interior malaise, a thorough diagnosis from an expert in the specific field is requested (“The graphologist must always abstain from making diagnoses in the reserved sectors of the field of medicine”). Article 6 of the European Deontology Code of Graphology, 1st January, 1992.
(14) Over the course of the years, there have been organizations that have undergone changes due to personal differences relative to character, besides an ideological or strategic/operative nature.
(15) Concerning the theme of deception, we make reference to illustrious authors of the literature of graphology: e.g. G. Moretti “Signs of the Lie”, and M. Pulver “Signs of Insincerity”, and also the contribution of A. Magni, “The Signs of Deception”, in Graphological Criminology, already cited.
(16) In fact, as far back as 539 b.c., the Emperor Justinian I, affirmed, “ the similarity of the handwriting is very suspicious: it’s a subject that has, more than once, deceived us; we shall not consider it until we have better evidence”.
(17) The ‘handwriting expert’’, “literally ‘expert in beautiful script’’, takes its origin from the conviction that the ‘calligraphers’ – recognized as “masters of beautiful writing” and the ‘scribes,’recognized in “their ability in the art of writing” – were, necessarily, the most suitable people to express an evaluation of handwriting.
(18) In fact, already in the 1950’s, the Magistracy had understood that: “A handwriting evaluation which is prevalently based on the calligraphic method of interpretation is generally insufficient, without the a careful graphological interpretation, to avoid the danger of errors in the opinions offered to the Magistrate”. Sentence of the Supreme Court Criminal Section II of 23.12.11959.
(19) The handwriting expert is a fully accredited professional in Court , as of 28.7.1989, Article 67,of the Legislative Decree 271.
(20) The versatility and completeness of the Graphological Method allows the expert to use the graphological signs both for strictly technical ends – in the case of a handwriting comparison – and for analytical ends to draw up, when requested, a personality profile from the writing. Something which is not possible for the calligraphic expert who does not know graphology.
(21) The Expert can receive a request for his services from the Judge (in such case, for the civil court, his title would be Technical Consultant of the Office, or T.C.O. while in the criminal Court, he would be called simply, Expert) or if he represents the interests of one of the parties, either civil or penal, he would be called Technical Consultant for the Plaintiff or the Defendant.
(22) In fact, It is possible that the Handwriting Expert is asked for extra-graphological assessments in various areas, for example: technology of commerce,(relative to the quality of paper, to its aging, either naturally or artificially induced),chemistry, (relative to the nature, the date, the alteration and the application of ink), psychiatric medicine (where there is recognizable organic or mental pathology).
(23) On the subject see the article by Prof.Torbidoni "La presunzione: uno dei difetti dei falsari e dei dissimulatori".